Thursday, May 21, 2020

Recent Changes in the Nursing Profession Essay - 813 Words

There have been many changes (major and minor) in the nursing profession and the medical field, as a whole, over the years. Some of these changes include changing demographics and increasing diversity, technological explosion, the cost of health care, and significant advances in nursing science and research. Major socioeconomic changes created this drive to make transformations in nursing and institutions. These institutions are the ones that are responsible for educating the next generation of nurses, such as West Coast University. Over the years, there have been major shifts within the United States in regards to its population. Statisticians have estimated that 20% of the population will be 65 years of age and older. There is an even†¦show more content†¦Heller, Marla T. Oros, and Jane Durney-Crowley, 2013, para. 5).† Due to these amazing and drastic technological changes, there have been improvements in both the outcomes and patient care management areas. Information is now just a webpage away and readily available for clinicians and their patients. For all of mankind, the cost of health care is a major daily stressor. This article stated an interesting fact that, â€Å"A concern of businesses and governments for at least 30 years, the cost of health care in the United States has approached 15 percent of the total gross national product (Barbara R. Heller, Marla T. Oros, and Jane Durney-Crowley, 2013, para. 19).† Even with that fact, there are over 40 million individuals living in the United States that do not have health care coverage. The total health care spending in America surpasses that of any other developed country. This is due to technological advances that are readily available and breakthroughs in medicine. Still, there are present concerns in nursing practices, such as: the affects on the nursing profession, treatment options for their patients, and the patients participation in their own care. This article stated, â€Å"Nursing professionals, who have historically taken the lead in health education and healt h promotion, are disappointed by the lack of financing and reimbursement available through managed care organizations forShow MoreRelatedNursing As A Noble Profession1282 Words   |  6 Pages INTRODUCTION: Nursing has been radically changed throughout the past years however, this profession profoundly corroborates with care and compassion. Moreover, nurses have to demonstrate lot of empathy and sympathy while delivering care for someone. Especially, when someone is facing challenges with physically inaptness and not susceptible with the medical intervention due to suffering of diseases. Indeed, nursing is considered as a noble profession owing to the care and sympathy with greaterRead MoreNurses as the Most Highly Trusted Health Professionals: A Discussion692 Words   |  3 PagesQuestion: Recent studies indicate that nurses are the most highly trusted health professional group. Question: Recent studies indicate that nurses are the most highly trusted health professional group. Discuss the components of nursings contemporary image that places nurses in this position of trust The image of the nursing profession is on the rise due to development in political, environmental, cultural, and social areas. This involves addition of women into the profession of nursing to instillRead MoreThe Media Portrayal Of Nurses1222 Words   |  5 Pagesare sometimes perceived as life savers and angels of mercy, the profession is often sexualized, stereotyped, and undermined in its importance (Hoeve et al., 2014). In this paper I will describe how the media portrays a professional nurse, and compare it with the current knowledge in literature –searched through a professional search engine, CINAHL. Then I will provide an insight into its implications on the practice of nursing profession. The mixed media portrayal of nurses is precisely depicted inRead MoreThe Affordable Healthcare Act ( Aca ) And The Institute Of Medicine957 Words   |  4 Pagesthe nursing profession.(The-Future-of-Nursing-Leading-Change-Advancing-Health, 2010).An interdisciplinary committee was put together to report the nations issues impacting health care. Recommendations were set forth by the IOM in a way to improve and restructure the nursing profession to fit the future of the medical field. (The-Future-of-Nursing-Leading-Change-Advancing-Health, 2010) The recommendation from the committee starts with an action-oriented blueprint for the future of nursing alsoRead MoreNursing Shortage: Causes, Concerns, and Impacts1839 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿Nursing Shortage: As many people in the United States are increasingly desperate for an employment opportunity, the nursing field or profession continues to have a huge need for staff. According to studies by employment services, the nursing profession is regularly ranked as one of the hot hiring sectors of the coming decade. Nonetheless, the supply of staff in this field seems not to catch up with the demand for nurses despite of the increased rate of unemployment. The need for more nursesRead MoreWomen s Role As A Female Dominant Profession Essay1395 Words   |  6 PagesHistory shows us that nursing has not always been female dominant profession, and men have been a part of nursing for since acient times. A once male dominated profession has transitioned into men representing only a small percentage of the nursing population. The decline of men in nursing can contributed to factors such as gender discrimination, sterotypes, and the demasculination of the profession as a whole. In recent years t here has been a push to revamp the image of nursing in order to recruitRead MoreThe Profession of Nursing Essay1628 Words   |  7 PagesThe definition of a profession is a calling requiring specialized knowledge and often long and intensive academic preparation (Webster Dictionary, 2008). By definition, I would consider nursing to be a profession, without a doubt. Nurses have spent too much time and effort in academic settings not to use the word profession. Nurses are taught and academically prepared by leaders in the nursing field who have the specialized knowledge that will specifically train nurses to meet the challengesRead More Requirements for Entry-Level Nursing Essay1087 Words   |  5 PagesScience in Nursing (BSN) as this increases the status of the nursing profession (p. 1). Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN), as well as a certificate on-the-job training Diploma are two other educational pathways to become an RN, which can be disadvantageous to the nursing profession in several ways (Tollick 2013; Spetz and Bates 2013). If entry-level nurses continue to practice without the BSN degree, then the deficit of highly educated nurses will be very detrimental to the nursing profession for yearsRead MoreThe Ethics Of The Nursing Profession962 Words   |  4 PagesIn the nursing profession it is important to stay up to date on current happenings in the field. The healthcare profession is fast paced and constantly changing so it is important to stay educated on those changes. Luckily there are many journals, websites, and social media pages that do just that. Since the healthcare field is so fact based it is important that sources of information are trustworthy, reviewed, and factual. Also referred to in the writing world as authoritative. One authoritativeRead MoreNursing and Health Care1204 Words   |  5 PagesImpact of Institute of Medicine on Nursing Ermina Rosic Grand Canyon University: NRS-430V December 14, 2014 The Institute of Medicine Report On Future of Nursing The Institute of Medicine (IOM) is a national, independent, non-profit organization whose purpose is to provide guidance, advice, and analysis of the field of medicine. The recent IOM report regarding the future of nursing gives us a glimpse of the dynamic and progressive changes that the field of nursing will experience in the coming decade

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Global Warming Impact of Climate Change on the...

Every place, country, city, region has its own climate. Climate plays one of the important roles in people’s life. Climate is defined as the average weather, which means variety of weather conditions as rain, snow, hail, sun, and wind over period of time about 30 years that can be measured in any particular place.( IPCC Third Assessment Report - Climate Change 2001; editor:A.P.Baede) Climate change is a variation of average weather. There are 2 causes of climate change. The first is human activity which includes deforestation, burning fossil fuels, agriculture, transportation and infrastructure. The second is natural causes which include volcanic eruptions and variations in solar outputs. These causes have negative effect on the natural†¦show more content†¦By climatologists’ evidence there are two causes with several factors that have a response for the Earth’s climate. They are: human activity which includes deforestation, burning fossil fuels, agricul ture, transportation and infrastructure, and natural causes which include volcanic eruptions and variations in solar output. (Pidwirny. 2006). Human activity affects on greenhouse gases, which has negative consequences on many things. Currently the concentration of greenhouse gases increases. Carbon dioxide(CO2 ), nitrous oxide(N2O), sulfur dioxide(SO2) and methane(CH4) are the main greenhouse gases (Berrou et al. 2010, 217). Agriculture and energy activities make the concentration of methane to rise. Land use changes, agriculture and industrial process influence on nitrous oxide concentration. Agriculture, deforestation and burning of fossil fuels for energy affect on the concentration of carbon dioxide. Coal burning, power stations and burning of biomass emit sulfur dioxide (Carter 2000, 34). All of these greenhouse gases have dramatically increased because of the industrial revolution which took the last 200 years (Carter 2000, 34). Comparing with other gases carbon dioxide is more responsible for the greenhouse effect (Pidwirny. 2006). Carbon dioxide is emitted from such processes like deforestation, the burning of coal, oil, gas, and through the carbon cycle. One more important greenhouse gas is methane.Show MoreRelatedPersuasive Essay : Global Warming1201 Words   |  5 Pagesinterested in pursuing for the persuasive essay is about The Global Warming. I am interesting in this Topic because I learned from my past experience working for The State Parks in Florida as a Park Ranger; by helping everyone to understand that we need to take care our environment by contribute to help â€Å"Mother Earth†; in addition, Global Warming is a slow increment in the general temperature of the world’s air for the most part credited to the â€Å"Greenhouse† impact brought about by expanding levels ofRead MoreEssay about Causes and Effects of Global Warming on Our World1498 Words   |  6 PagesGlobal Warm ing is a universal concern that has gained worldwide attention. As members of Congress, we have heard and learned new and different facts about the process of Earth. Some causes and effects of global warming are easy to understand, with substantial evidence, yet there are still unanswered questions and reasoning as to why global warming is occurring. This essay is to outline the background of global warming and to display opposing viewpoints. Since there is not enough evidential researchRead MoreGlobal Warming : Causes, Effects And Remedies1748 Words   |  7 PagesPublish Your Essay Content Quality Guidelines Disclaimer Privacy Policy Contact Us 1309 Words Essay on Global Warming: Causes, Effects and Remedies by Vishal Global warming is the greatest challenge facing our planet. It is, in fact, the increase in the temperature of the earth’s neon- surface air. It is one of the most current and widely discussed factors. It has far-reaching impact on biodiversity and climatic conditions of the planet. Several current trends clearly demonstrate that global warmingRead MoreEnvironmental Case Analysis: the Risks of Global Climate Change1185 Words   |  5 PagesEnvironmental Case Analysis: The Risks of Global Climate Change Introduction The natural world seems to be deteriorating around us, and it seems to be our fault. We are uncertain about the extent of the deterioration, the means that would reverse it, and the prospects for human life in the future (Newton, Dillingham, Choly, 2006, p. x). The environment and its protection is an extremely serious issue. Many environmental issues exist including endangered species, waste pollution, over populationRead MoreFood Industry And Global Warming946 Words   |  4 PagesIndustry and Global Warming Global Warming is a rising issue for all the creatures on the Earth. Scientists haven been discovering the reasons and solutions for the global environmental changes for decades. Also, because of the effort of the scientists and media, people got aware of the great impacts of green house effect. However, most people only know that global warming is caused by the industries, manufactures or transportations, and neglect another huge factor of the environment, the foodRead MoreGlobal Warming: Why Its the Governments Job to Halt a Perfectly Natural Phenomenon1584 Words   |  7 Pagespattern occasioned by the global warming. Extreme and erratic weather conditions have been experienced in almost every part of the world. This essay will review the literature that is available on the definition of Global warming, the causes of global warming, effects of global warming on the community and nations, what the government is doing to stop global warming, as well as what Non-Governmental Or ganizations or Non-State Organizations are doing to stop global warming and finally what should beRead MoreAnalyzing Anthropocentrism Ethic : A Case Study Of Climate Change1209 Words   |  5 PagesTopic: analyzing anthropocentrism ethic: a case study of climate change Climate change is one of the most serious phenomenon in environment issue. As in scientist, the excess production and emission of greenhouse gases are the main cause, and the hidden executor is us, the human beings (Cook, 2010). This essay is based on the reading of â€Å"Myth as a Site of Ecocritical Inquiry: Disrupting Anthropocentrism†, but further analyze on the relationship between human and nature and critical thinking of anthropocentrismRead MoreClimate Change And Global Warming1371 Words   |  6 PagesClimate change is one of the most serious issues that the world is facing today. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the processes that lead to climate change and strategies that can be used to address this issue. In order to comprehend how human activities contribute towards climate change and global warming, we have to truly understand the science behind this phenomenon. First of all we need to clarify what anthropogenic climate change means. This refers to the change in the amount of greenhouseRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The Alaskan Environment Essay1403 Words   |  6 Pagescountry in the world has been affected by climate change. Climate change is a change in the statistical properties of the climate system that persists for several decades or longer (Montgomery, 2015). Climate change (or global warming) can be caused by a natural progress such as sun s radiations and volcanoes, or it can be caused by human s actions such as land use, deforestation, and pollution. (Hardy, 2003).This phenomenon not only affects the environment, but it also affects human lives. AlaskaRead MoreGlobal Warming Essay1407 Words   |  6 PagesNovember 2014 Global Warming Essay The idea of global became prevalent when the world began industrializing. As the popularity of cars grew and industrial factories began to spring up the air quality suffered. The problem was not recognized because, aside from a few orange skies, there were no obvious effects. Although in this day and age we can see what global warming is doing to our Earth, there are still those people who believe that humans are too small to make an impact. Global warming is too

Oil Gas Management Free Essays

Abstract The Gulf of Mexico incident is an occurrence that many people in the United Kingdom and Mexico, who were affected, would like to forget as it had immense environmental and economic impact to them. This paper is going to describe the extent to which the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico is considered to have led to a meaningful reform of the regulation of the offshore oil and gas industry on the UK continental shelf. These include well planning and control, environmental protection, emergency response, authority for stopping operations off, catastrophic BOP’s failure, the significance of simple checks, protection of the whistle-blowers, and a summary or conclusion of the described measures. We will write a custom essay sample on Oil Gas Management or any similar topic only for you Order Now Introduction An explosion took place on the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig on 20 April 2010 leading to the death of 11 workers. The region is in the Gulf of Mexico and was under contract to the British petroleum. It is still not yet known the extent of the damage that took place both on the environment and the communities around. Among the errors that led to the incident is the fact that the two pods of control on the BOP of the Deepwater Horizon showed that there was an error in a vital valve in one of the pods of control, and that the other pod of control did not have adequate charge on the batteries; it is believed that these faults were there during the time that the accident happened. There was at least a single working control pod needed to run the automatic mode function that would have helped in closing up the BOP. The automatic mode function should have taken place in an automatic manner, without being aided, when the hydraulic line together with the electric cables were destroyed in the explosion. The automatic mode function is a very important system of backup. This paper is going to describe extent to which the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico is considered to have led to a meaningful reform of the regulation of the offshore oil and gas industry on the UK continental shelf. Well planning and control The reforms that were recommended by the panel included making sure that the Well Life Cycle Practices Forum remained in place permanently. It is also required that the professional, influential representatives from the HSE and the industry meet on a regular basis to decide, review and always improve values and standards for good practice in the well integrity as well as management of application in the UKCS. The Macondo blowout is taken into consideration by the standards and consists of operating practices, sufficiency and consistency of the safety vital equipment (particularly BOPs), testing and maintenance of hardware; proficiency and training of personnel; organizational and human features. They share these standards with the partners in the industry and international regulators and the organizations that set the standards. In consideration of the Macando, it was also required that the following are considered; Whether a change in the control of well standards it essential to necessitate at least two barricades to be in place (besides the BOP) during the moving of a well to a situation that is not balanced with the zone of production, and; Whether there is any change required to make the operators provide notice warning about each time a situation is arrived at where the BOP together with one other barricade to a release is attained. Protecting the Environment The DECC and the industry are required to work hand in hand for the purposes of developing and adopting improvements like: The concept of Environmental Assurance plan that possibly uses the Environmental Management System or the Environmental Statement as living equipment for engendering a concept of goal-setting to environmental policies intended to continuously improving, especially in relation to the low-frequency incidents that have high impact. The identification and cohesive treatment of the generic features of documents of environmental assurance to enable the devotion of more effort to some other more localized or particular areas of possible risk and impact, via more rigorous use of internet systems. The industry has also been challenged to take greater ownership of the available regulatory requirements of the environment, which include appraisal of the contractual arrangements for the preparation and keeping up-to-date the required documents making them into tools for driving improvements in the environmental evaluation and protection. The regulator is also required to continue working with the industry so as to make identifications of the ways in which the available requirements of reporting, particularly about compliance to the environmental requirements, may be rationalized or even simplified. Additionally, there might be more that should be done to show the need for, and resultant value of the comprehensive environmental evaluations that is required of them, with a need and aim of offering increases scope for approaches that are innovative to the improvement of the standards of the environment. It has also been recommended that the documents of guidance that relate to the offshore environmental effect evaluation, regulatory activities and enforcement should be revised and reviewed on a regular basis, initially following the changes in the procedures that came up from the Macando and consequently taking into consideration any other applicable or relevant occurrences, for the reinforcement of the continuous culture improvement of the UKCS and ensuring that operators are well acquainted with the present requirements and expectations of environmental best practice. In addition, since the incident of the Deepwater Horizon, some other interim environmental regulation and inspection steps that have been taken by the United Kingdom include the increasing of the number of yearly environmental inspections to the drilling rigs, besides hiring three more inspectors. This consequently increased the total number of the inspectors of the drilling rigs to ten, and this includes one inspector who is senior. Considering the less widespread areas of responsibility of the DECC in comparison to the HSE, it together with its prototype agencies have all worked with fewer inspectors as compared with the HSE. The HSE has 114 professional inspectors, whereas the DECC has about ten inspectors. The onshore offices and offshore installations are visited by DECC inspectors for the inspection of the management systems and records. They also go there to interview individuals and appraise the conditions of the site, practices and standards. The increased number of the site inspectors is expected to enable the DECC raise the number of inspections on the environment done on the mobile drilling rigs across the country from an average of seven to at least 16 on yearly basis immediately. The Cabinet Secretary referred to the inspectors’ movement between the private and public sectors. This might render it very difficult for the recruitment and maintaining of inspectors that are highly qualified in the future. The offshore inspectorate of the DECC describe their strategy of environmental inspection as one that is risk-based. This means that of the rigs that are presently carrying out activities of drilling, nearly twenty four of them, which translates to about twenty percent are on gas reservoirs; however, the DECC argue that this inherently does not pose much risk to the environment in comparison with those that operate on oil reservoirs. Hence, this is taken into consideration, together with the site of the rig and t he well’s nature, the DECC aims to inspect the rigs that carryout drilling activity on particular oil reservoirs. Responding to Emergencies Arrangements for giving response to the incidents of oil spilling that pose potential danger to the marine environment were established by the Oil Pollution Emergency Plans. The plans intend to prevent pollutions as such and minimize or decrease the effect that might come with it. The Oil Pollution Emergency Plans are risk evaluations that are applicable to a particular installation or field. Their focus is on the worse-case instance; as a result of the incident at the Gulf of Mexico, the United Kingdom operators are not expected to do extra modeling for the installations of deepwater, which include a more appraisal of the predictions of oil spill beaching. These plans are also appraised by the Maritime Coastguard Department and some other related consulters like the Maritime Management Agency and the related inshore statutory agency. Witnesses were asked about the way they had changed their ways of operation in the United Kingdom deepwaters since the occurrence in the Mexican Gulf. Some of them said that they do not believe they had basically changed in any manner. This was due to the strong regulatory era that was the Cullen’s legacy of inquiry into the incident of Piper Alpha. However, with regard to establishing any changes in regulation in reaction to the tragedy of the Deepwater Horizon, they were wary of making universal and global changes that might not be proper for them from incident to incident, the kernel of what is in the safety case era. There is a feeling that the industry appears to be reacting to incidences after they have occurred instead of having anticipations and making proper planning for the high-consequence events that are low in probability. It is beyond reasonable doubt that the industry and BP’s inability to respond because it was not prepared in a proper manner was not acceptable. The black swans’ occurrence appears to be more frequent nowadays. The United Kingdom has high regulatory standards of offshore, as shown by the Safety Case Regime, which was established in reaction to the 1998 Piper Alpha incident. The regulatory framework of the United Kingdom is on the basis of flexible and goal-getting approaches that are stronger than those that the Deepwater Horizon operated under. Despite the high standards of regulation in the United Kingdom, they are concerned that the industry of offshore gas and oil is giving a response to disasters instead of anticipation worst-instance cases and makin g proper planning for the high-aftermath, low-probability occurrences. Role of the Offshore Installations Manager We are informed from both the industry and the regulator that there were individual offshore installations that always have the power to shut down the well. Bridging documents were created between the systems of the owner of the rig and the operator systems of the well to ensure that issues like who has the final word or say are properly agreed before any operation is commenced. The HSE stated that there will normally be one individual who is actually responsible for matters safety on the rig, which is the Offshore Installations Manager, the contractor of drilling. There are huge financial implications of delaying the operations of drilling even just for very short periods. In the instance of the Deepwater Horizon, we find that the BP had the aim of drilling the Macondo well for a period of 51 days only, at about 96 million dollars. It was expected that the platform of drilling would be taking off as early as 8 March 2012; however, the Macando well unexpectedly took a longer period. By the 20th April, the day that there was the blowout, which killed eleven individuals, the rig was already late by 43 days, and this would have led to an extra cost of 21 million dollars in lease fees only. There is a danger that those who are responsible for making decisions to stop operations could feel economic pressure not to do so if was possible. Catastrophic BOP’s failure The last defense line against the Macondo incident was a device known as the ‘blind shear ram’, which is part of the BOP found on top of the wellhead, and more than a mile below the ocean floors’ surface. If the oil’s upward pressure and the gas that is in the reservoir became more than the heavy drilling fluid’s downward pressure, and all the other resources for controlling the well failed to operate, the two blades of the blind shear ram, were expected to slice through the pipe of the drill and then help in sealing the well. If the BOP had worded as expected, the whole incident would not have occurred and all the lives would not have been lost. Taking into account the single blind-shear ram’s failure to run the blowout preventer of the Deepwater Horizon, which appeared to be one of the major causes of the blowout of the well of Macondo, it was recommended that the Safety and Health Executive particularly review the case for prescription that the United Kingdom Continental Shelf’s blowout preventers are well equipped with the two blind shear ram. Whereas the flexibility of the safety regulation regime of the United Kingdom seemed to have performed properly, it was also been seen that for fail-safe devices like blowout preventer, the administration or the government has adopted minimum, strict standards of safety or show that these would not actually be an economical, last-resort against catastrophes. Importance of simple checks An appraisal of the two pods of control on the BOP of the Deep-water Horizon as a result of the incident showed that there was an error in a vital valve in one of the pods of control, and that the other pod of control did not have adequate charge on the batteries; it is believed that these faults were there during the time that the accident happened. There was at least a single working control pod needed to run the automatic mode function that would have helped in closing up the BOP. The automatic mode function should have taken place in an automatic manner, without being aided, when the hydraulic line together with the electric cables were destroyed in the explosion. The automatic mode function is a very important system of backup. It is of great concern that the simple failures of various systems were not identified during the process of inspection. As a consequence, a programme has been implemented across the global drilling operation to make sure that the equipment operates the way it is designed to do. Another thing that has been done to ensure that such preventable incidences do not repeat include fundamentally improving the testing procedures of the blowout preventers, which consists of making sure that the systems of backup work and are properly tested in the process of drilling a well. This is another instance of the industry giving a response to an accident instead of anticipating a possible problem, even though the new regime is highly welcome. It is believed that the authorities have to make sure that the offshore inspection regime of the United Kingdom could not be susceptible to simple faults like having a battery that does not have sufficient charge, to go without being noticed. Need to protect the whistle-blowers Owing to the immense economic pressure of keeping a drilling rig functional, it is of great concern to various stakeholders that the workers who attempt to talk about safety matters might be or even feel like they are intimidated by their seniors. The whistle-blowers are not in a position of calling a halt or bringing to a stop some things and the managers and clearly attempting to make money for the organization. Their primary responsibility is not protecting the environment. Some contradicting reports were found from the HSE regarding harassment and aggravation on the rigs as well as the industry’s assurances that honest whistleblowers will be given a hearing and protection. The government has also ensured that there are discussions with the unions and industry about the further actions that are required for the prevention of representatives of safety from feeling or being intimidated by their seniors such that they do not report a danger. Conclusion Following the fatal incidence that occurred in the Mexican Gulf, it is important that there is clarity on the hierarchy and identity of the liable stakeholders to make sure that the government, and thus the taxpayers, doe not need to pay for the outcomes of the offshore accidents. Any lack of hierarchy and clarity on the liability will hamper the compensation payment to those that are affected by the incident of the offshore. It is recommended that it needs to be a requirement of the process of licensing that it proves their capability to pay for the outcomes of any incident that could happen. It is recognized that these measures could actually be added to the cost of investment in the new United Kingdom gas and oil production and encourage the Treasury to consider this during incentives to investments as such. Bibliography A. Hopkins, ‘Risk-management and rule compliance: Decision-making in hazardous industries. Safety Science,’ (49, 110-120, 2011). B.P. Deepwater Horizon accident and response. Retrieved on 21/1/2014 from G. S. Braut, P. Lindoe, ‘Risk Regulation in the North Sea: A common law perspective on Norwegian legislation.’ (Paper presented at the WorkingonSafety, 2009). G. S. Braut, P.H. Lindoe, ‘Risk Regulation in the North Sea: A Common Law Perspecitve on Norwegian Legislation.’ (Safety Science Monitor, 14(1, Article 2), 2010). Great Britain. UK deepwater drilling: Implications of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. (London: The Stationery Office, 2011) http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/gulf-of-mexico-restoration/deepwater-horizon-accident-and-response.html J. Kringen, Culture and control. Regulation of risk in the Norwegian Petroleum Industry, (University of Oslo, 2011). J. Vinnem, ‘Risk indicators for major hazards on offshore installations.’ (Safety Science, 48, 770-787, 2010). M. Baram, Self Regulation and Safety Management. (WoS, Roros, 2011). O. E. Olsen, P.H. Lindoe, ‘Risk on the ramble: The interntional transfer of risk and vulnerability.’ (Safety Science, 47, 743-755, 2009). Ocean Portal Team. Gulf Oil Spill. Retreieved on 21 Jan 2014 from http://ocean.si.edu/gulf-oil-spill P. Lindoe, O.E. Olsen, ‘Conflicting Goals and mixed Roles in Risk Regulation: a case study of the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate.’ (Journal of Risk Research, (12(3-4), 1-15, 2009). R. Steizor, Lessons from the North Sea: Should â€Å"Safety Cases† Come to America. (School of Law, University of Maryland, Paper no. 2011-3, 2011). P. Lindoe, O. A. Engen, O.E. Olsen, ‘Reponses to accidents in different industrial sectors.’ (Safety Science, 49, 90-97, 2011). How to cite Oil Gas Management, Essay examples

Friday, April 24, 2020

Osteoporosis in Human Physiology Essay Sample free essay sample

Introduction Osteoporosis is a upset of the skeleton ensuing from an change in bone remodeling. the procedure in which bone is broken down or reabsorb and replaced with new bone. It is characterized by increased osteoclastic activity and accelerated decrease in bone mass ( Figure 1 ) and a attendant impairment in the microarchitecture of bone taking to heighten bone breakability and an increased hazard of break. ( Sheldon J. Segal Ph. D. . Luigi D. Mastroianni Jr. . M. 2003 ) . Osteoporosis is the 4th most common and the 8th most expensive disease to handle in the United States. Annually. 1. 3 million breaks related to osteoporosis occur. the most frequent being 300. 000 hip and 700. 000 vertebrae breaks. The cost of this untreated disease is about $ 14 billion yearly. but seldom do primary attention suppliers talk about this disease to their patients. Although many adult females report believing about osteoporosis frequently. few ask inquiries about it. Osteoporosis is a disease that increases in frequence with progressing age. We will write a custom essay sample on Osteoporosis in Human Physiology Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page particularly in the female population. In adult females 13 % to 18 % ( 4 to 6 million ) have osteoporosis. and 37 % to 50 % ( 13 to 17 million ) have osteopenia. In work forces 3 % to 6 % ( 1 to 2 million ) have osteoporosis. and 28 % to 47 % have osteopenia. Thirty-seven per centum of visits for osteoporosis occur between the ages of 71 and 80. 28 % between the ages of 61 and 70. 20 % after age 80. and merely 10 % between the ages of 51 and 60. Fifty-nine per centum of the visits for osteoporosis are to primary attention doctors. but it is by and large other specializers who prescribe therapy for osteoporosis. ( Shari Munch. Sarah Shapiro. 2006 ) . FIGURE 1. Bone is invariably remolded during osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity. ( Mary P. Sutphen. Bridie Andrews. 2003 ) . Osteoporotic breaks occur most often in the hips. vertebrae. and carpuss. Hip break. normally the consequence of a autumn. is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in older adult females. The incidence increases with age. and between 12 % and 20 % of all persons with hip break dice in the infirmary of complications. Approximately one-third of subsisters are left with some disablement. which limits their independency. Wrist breaks. which are besides normally incurred during a autumn. by and large heal wholly with few permanent effects. Vertebral breaks are frequently called â€Å"crush fractures† because they can take to vertebral compaction and a loss of tallness. When several vertebrae are involved. compaction can falsify the spinal column. taking to â€Å"dowager’s hump† ( Figure 2 ) . As spinal curvature additions. the rib coop sinks toward the pelvic girdle. doing internal variety meats to go cramped and accordingly making troubles with external respiratio n and GI uncomfortableness. ( Stephen H. Jenkins. 2004 ) . FIGURE 2. Compaction breaks of the vertebrae lead to loss of tallness and frontward bending of the upper spinal column. ( Mary P. Sutphen. Bridie Andrews. 2003 ) . PHYSIOLOGY OF OSTEOPOROSIS After peak bone denseness is reached. bone denseness remains stable for old ages and so diminutions. Considerable grounds suggests that bone loss begins before climacteric in adult females and in the 20s to 40s in work forces. Once the climacteric is established. the rate of bone mass is accelerated several creases in adult females. During the first 5 to 10 old ages of the climacteric. trabeculate bone is lost faster than cortical bone. with rates of about 2 to 4 % and 1 to 2 % per twelvemonth. severally. A adult female can lose 10 to 15 % of her cortical bone and 25 to 30 % of her trabeculate bone during this clip. a loss that can be prevented by estrogen replacing therapy. Furthermore. rates of bone loss vary well between adult females. A subset of adult females in whom ostopenia is more terrible than expected for their age are said to hold type1 or â€Å"post-menopausal† osteoporosis. Clinically type I osteoporosis frequently presents with vertebral â€Å"crush† breaks or â€Å"Colles† breaks. The mechanism whereby estrogen lack leads to cram loss is still non established. Recent grounds suggests that estrogen lack may increase local production of bone-resorbing cytokines such as interleukin ( IL ) 1. IL-6. and tumor mortification factor. Because estrogen besides increases local production of growing factors. such as insulin like growing factor1 and transforming growing factor beta that stimulates bone formation. estrogen lack might decrease bone formation. Estrogen lack increases the skeleton sensitiveness to the resorbtive effects of parathyroid endocrine. Estrogen lack hence leads to a little addition in serum Ca degree. Harmonizing to one hypothesis. increased Ca degrees suppress parathyroid endocrine secernments. thereby diminishing nephritic 1. 25- dihydroxy vitamin D formation. which so limits enteric Ca soaking up. Finally the find of estroge n receptors on bone-forming cells suggests that estrogen lack may besides change bone formation straight. ( Linda K. Larkey. Sharon Hoelscher Day. Linda Houtkooper. Ralph Renger. 2003 ) . Once the period of rapid station menopausal bone loss ends. bone loss continues at a more gradual rate throughout life. The osteopania that consequences from normal aging. which occurs in both adult females and work forces. has been termed type II or â€Å"Senile† osteoporosis. Because type II osteoporosis is associated with a more balanced lessening in cortical and trabeculate bone mass. breaks of hip. pelvic girdle. carpus. proximal humerus. proximal shinbone. and vertebral organic structures all occur normally. Factors that may be of import in the pathogenesis of type II osteoporosis include ; ( Marc H. Bornstein. Lucy Davidson. Corey L. M. Keyes. Kristin A. Moore. 2003 ) . Finally the differentiation between the type I and type II osteoporosis are frequently rather arbitrary. and there may be considerable convergence between these syndromes. ( Henry B. Biller. 2002 ) . Many of the upsets that can take to osteoporosis independent from the normal procedure of the climacteric in adult females and aging in both adult females and work forces should be considered when measuring patients with osteoporosis and include endogenous and exogenic glucocorticoid surplus. hypogonadism. thyrotoxicosis. hyperparathyroidism. vitamin D lack. GI diseases. bone marrow upsets. immobilisation. connective tissue diseases and certain drugs. ( Kate Terrio. Garry W. Auld. 2002 ) . Detection There are several techniques for gauging bone denseness. Single photon absorptiometry ( SPA ) and individual x-ray absorptiometry ( SXA ) are used to measure mineral content of the forearm. They measure chiefly cortical bone in which tissue loss is non evident until late in the class of the disease. Double x-ray absorptiometry ( DXA ) gives a more accurate estimation of hazard. mensurating the mineral content of the entire cortical and trabeculate castanetss of the hip and spinal column and entire bone mass. Radiation exposure for this process is less than that of a standard spinal column X ray. ( Mayur M. Amonkar. Reema Mody. 2002 ) . PREVENTION AND TREATMENT Actual bar of osteoporosis must get down in the adolescent old ages. As adult females progressively live into their 80s and 90s the intervention of osteoporosis is going large concern. Mundy ( 1995 ) notes that though we soon have several effectual drugs for osteoporosis. clinical tests show that even better 1s are needed. At this clip osteoporotic harm can non be repaired. but bar of the reabsorption of bone with assorted pharmaceuticals is an of import end. ( Carol Lewis. 2002 ) . Hormone Replacement Therapy:Many surveies have shown that estrogen intercession. or hormone replacing therapy ( HRT ) . reduces the rate of bone loss. The effects of estrogen in forestalling bone loss can be seen instantly after climacteric. in adult females over 70 old ages old. and in those with established osteoporosis. Long-run estrogen usage ( more than 5 old ages ) . is associated with a decrease in the hazard of breaks of the hip and distal radius every bit good as of vertebral crush break. ( Milos Jenicek. 2002 ) . The manner of action of estrogen on bone is ill-defined. Recently estrogen receptors have been found in osteoblastic cells. proposing a stimulation of bone synthesis. Estrogens may besides act upon Ca homeostasis in the organic structure by increasing the hydroxylation of 25-hydroxy vitamin D to its active 1. 25 signifier. ( Jay Herson. 2007 ) . Calcitonin:is a thyroid endocrine that. with the parathyroid endocrine. regulates calcium metamorphosis. Several surveies have demonstrated that injections or intranasal spray of this endocrine inhibit trabeculate bone loss and may cut down the incidence of osteoporotic break. In 1995. FDA approved the intranasal spray of calcitonin for intervention of osteoporosis. ( Michele C. Md Moore. Caroline M. De Md Costa. 2004 ) . Aminobisphosphonates:are a category of new drugs that are powerful inhibitors of bone reabsorption that do non retard bone formation. They are being tested in adult females with osteoporosis and look to increase trabeculate bone mass significantly without damage of cortical bone. A recent 3-year survey with this drug and 500-mg addendums of Ca found a lower rate of break in treated versus placebo-controlled topics. Application has been made to the Food and Drug Administration for blessing in intervention for osteoporosis. ( Simon J. Williams. Lynda Birke. Gillian A. Bendelow. 2003 ) . Calcium:Osteoporosis is non a disease ensuing from obvious lacks in vitamin D. Ca. and phosphate. but elusive lacks may account for the ability of Ca and vitamin D addendums to hold a good consequence on bone. Reduced Ca intake clearly can do bone loss by asking the usage of skeletal Ca to keep a changeless serum Ca degree. Although less effectual than HRT. day-to-day consumptions of 1500 to 1700 milligram of Ca with 5 to 10 milligram ( 400 to 800 IU ) of vitamin D in the early postmenopausal period have been shown to significantly retard bone loss from the lumbar spinal column and proximal thighbone and to cut down the hazard of hip and other nonvertebral breaks. Vitamin D:Recently. Dawson-Hughes and coworkers found that although consumptions of 5. 0 ?g of vitamin D are sufficient to restrict bone loss from the spinal column and the whole organic structure. sums every bit high as 20 ?g were needed to cut down bone loss from the hip ( femoral cervix ) . Recommendations from the Consensus Development Conference are for 5 to 10 ?g of vitamin D consumption. ( Ivar Sonbo Kristiansen. Gavin Mooney. 2004 ) . A man-made signifier of calcitrol ( 1. 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 ) . the most physiologically active metabolite of vitamin D. has been used pharmacologically in intervention of post-menopausal osteoporosis with conflicting consequences. One clinical test of 622 adult females with mild to chair disease reported a significantly lower rate of new vertebral breaks after 3 old ages of intervention. Fluoride:stimulates bone formation by publicity of osteoblast proliferation ensuing in additions in trabeculate bone compared to cortical bone and additions in spinal bone denseness. Recent research makes fluoride intervention expression promising. but optimum dosage and regimens remain to be established. ( A. Alonso Aguirre. Richard S. Ostfeld. Gary M. Tabor. Carol House. Mary C. Pearl. 2002 ) . The NIH Consensus Development Conference concluded that fluoride did non look to take down the rate of vertebral break and may increase cortical break. However. preliminary surveies of a 2. 5-year intervention regimen of slow-release Na fluoride and 400 milligram of Ca citrate twice daily reported improved lumbar bone mass. improved cancellate bone quality. and a important decrease in vertebral break rates. However. other tests. which administered Na fluoride and Ca carbonate to adult females with postmenopausal osteoporosis for 4 old ages. found no important lessening in vertebral break rate with the fluoride intervention. ( Carole A. Carson. 2005 ) . Exercise:Physical activity plays an indispensable function in bar of osteoporosis by keeping bone mass. Weight-bearing activity such as alert walking 20 proceedingss or more day-to-day is first-class. It provides non merely mechanical force. spinal column and long bone motion. but besides sunlight exposure and vitamin D. ( Ernie Hood. 2003 ) . The skeleton is subjected to burden bearing emphasis of gravitation and forces from musculus contraction. These forces change the form of the bone. Bone mass additions in response to mechanical emphasis. Physical exercising enhances bone development. and vigorous exercising augments bone mineral denseness. Physically active people appear to hold higher bone denseness than those who are sedentary. and some surveies have reported a positive association between musculus strength and bone mass. particularly in premenopausal adult females. In add-on. there is grounds that a assortment of exercising plans have been associated with decreased hazard of falls in older grownups. ( Tobias Alfven. Lars Jarup. Carl-Gustaf Elinder. 2002 ) . Lifestyle alterations:are necessary for those with osteoporosis. particularly when there is grounds of feeding and imbibing forms of inordinate intoxicant. protein. salt. and caffeine. Decrease of coffin nail smoke is another alteration that becomes necessary. All of these surpluss cause bone to lose Ca. ( Angela J. Koestler Ph. D. . Ann Myers M. D. 2002 ) . Education/knowledge:is possibly the most of import issue in bar and intervention of osteoporosis. Knowledge about the sites most vulnerable to fracture through accidents. falls. back strain. and hapless position should be provided. Explanation should be given about alterations in the upper spinal column that occur when vertebrae are weakened. and the hurting that consequences from strain on the lower spinal column to counterbalance for balance and height alterations due to change of the upper spinal column. ( Terry Robson Diped Nd Ba. 2003 ) . Personal safety:should be addressed for those with osteoporosis to avoid falls. Places with good support should be worn. Bannisters should be used and walking in ill lighted countries should be avoided. Basic organic structure mechanics such as non flexing or raising heavy objects should be learned. Use of measure stools or chairs for making things in high topographic points should be discouraged. Home safety should include good lighting. railings. and other AIDSs as needed. Walks should be kept free of obstructions ; loose carpets and electrical cords should be arranged so that they do non do falls. ( Myrna Chandler Goldstein. Mark A. Goldstein M. D. 2002 ) . Decision It is neer excessively early or excessively late to originate lifestyle alterations to cut down loss of bone mass. Adolescents and immature grownups can construct maximum extremum bone mass with exercising and a balanced diet incorporating 1200 milligram of Ca and 5 ?g of vitamin D. For older adult females. HRT can minimise bone loss and. in some cases. advance osteogenic activity. Weight-bearing physical activity has the potency non merely to protect from farther bone loss but besides to better strength. mobility. flexibleness. legerity. and musculus strength. which may indirectly diminish the incidence of osteoporotic breaks by decreasing the likeliness of falling. Calcium and vitamin D are cardinal dietetic ingredients. Current recommendations ( 1500 milligram Ca. 10 to 20 ?g vitamin D ) for these alimentary sums exceed the RDA and may be hard to obtain through nutrient entirely. Addendums should be used with cautiousness. though. because extra vitamin D can do bone loss and neuro logic jobs. Other therapies. including fluoride. vitamin D parallels. and calcitonin. will doubtless has greater potency in the hereafter. ( V. Minichiello. I. Coulson. 2005 ) . Mentions: Angela J. Koestler Ph. D. . Ann Myers M. D ( 2002 ) . Understanding Chronic Pain ; University Press of Mississippi Carol Lewis ( 2002 ) . Osteoporosis and Men ; FDA Consumer. Vol. 36. September Carole A. Carson ( 2005 ) . The Importance of Bone Mineral Density in Women ; JOPERD–The Journal of Physical Education. Recreation A ; Dance. Vol. 76 Ernie Hood ( 2003 ) . Toward a New Understanding of Aging ; Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 111 Henry B. Biller ( 2002 ) . Creative Fitness: Applying Health Psychology and Exercise Science to Everyday Life ; Auburn House Ivar Sonbo Kristiansen. Gavin Mooney ( 2004 ) . Evidence Based Medicine: In Whose Interests? Routledge Jay Herson ( 2007 ) . The Coming Osteoporosis Epidemic: Trend Analysis ; an Aging Society Is About Certain to Be Characterized by a Weakening Population as the Ravages of Thin-Bone Diseases Affect More Peoples. A Health Futurist Analyzes the Trend’s Coming Impacts on Families. the Economy. Public Policy. and Social and Technological Innovation ; The Futurist. Vol. 41. March Kate Terrio. Garry W. Auld ( 2002 ) . Osteoporosis Knowledge. Calcium Intake. and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women ; Journal of Community Health. Vol. 27 Linda K. Larkey. Sharon Hoelscher Day. Linda Houtkooper. Ralph Renger ( 2003 ) . Osteoporosis Prevention: Knowledge and Behavior in a Southwestern Community ; Journal of Community Health. Vol. 28 Marc H. Bornstein. Lucy Davidson. Corey L. M. Keyes. Kristin A. Moore ( 2003 ) . Well-Being: Positive Development across the Life Course ; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Mary P. Sutphen. Bridie Andrews ( 2003 ) . Medicine and Colonial Identity ; Routledge Mayur M. Amonkar. Reema Mody ( 2002 ) . Developing Profiles of Postmenopausal Women Being Prescribed Estrogen Therapy to Prevent Osteoporosis ; Journal of Community Health. Vol. 27 Michele C. Md Moore. Caroline M. De Md Costa ( 2004 ) . Do You Truly Necessitate Surgery? A Sensible Guide to Hysterectomy and Other Procedures for Women ; Rutgers University Press Milos Jenicek ( 2002 ) . Foundations of Evidence-Based Medicine ; Parthenon Publishing Myrna Chandler Goldstein. Mark A. Goldstein M. D. ( 2002 ) . Controversies in Food and Nutrition ; Greenwood Press Shari Munch. Sarah Shapiro ( 2006 ) . The Silent Thief: Osteoporosis and Women’s Health Care across the Life Span ; Health and Social Work. Vol. 31 Sheldon J. Segal Ph. D. . Luigi D. Mastroianni Jr. . M ( 2003 ) . Hormone Use in Menopause A ; Male Andropause: A Choice for Women and Men ; Oxford University Press Simon J. Williams. Lynda Birke. Gillian A. Bendelow ( 2003 ) . Debating Biology: Sociological Contemplations on Health. Medicine. and Society ; Routledge Stephen H. Jenkins ( 2004 ) . How Science Works: Measuring Evidence in Biology and Medicine ; Oxford University Press Terry Robson Diped Nd Ba ( 2003 ) . An Introduction to Complementary Medicine ; Allen A ; Unwin Tobias Alfven. Lars Jarup. Carl-Gustaf Elinder ( 2002 ) . Cadmium and Lead in Blood in Relation to Low Bone Mineral Density and Tubular Proteinuria ; Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 110

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Project Proposal Essay

Project Proposal Essay Project Proposal Essay 114-25 Meredith Place, Addisleigh Park, New York 11434, Tele (212) 297-0612, Fax (212) 297-0611 SECTION I – TRANSMITTAL LETTER December 1, 2012 Mr. Isuzu Kawasaki Associate Director San Monica Properties Purchasing, Room 214 500 Keller Boulevard Queens, New York 87124 Dear Mr. Kawasaki, In compliance to the specified requirements set forth in the Request For Proposal on the subject â€Å"Kitchen Remodeling in a Duplex Luxury Apartment†, Innovation Construction Company appreciates the opportunity to present for your consideration the accompanying proposal in accordance with Section IV (Scope of Services)) of your Request for Proposal. The salient purpose of this document is to provide you with general and specific information that satisfies the needs of your company with respect to the your remodeling and construction needs. Our desire is to provide your company with quality construction that has the â€Å"look and feel of luxury†, which will attract customers and lead to maximum profits for your company. On behalf of Innovation Construction Company, I hereby acknowledge and accept the expressed terms and conditions of your Request for Proposal released on September 28, 2012. In addition, I certify that Innovation Construction Company meets the Basic Proposal Requirement outlined in Section V of the RFP. Our company hopes that this proposal will receive your most favorable approval. Sincerely, David Michaels President and Chief Executive Officer Innovation Construction Section III- Technical Proposal A- Experience San Monica Properties has assisted our clients across a wide range of sectors to achieve higher levels of performance and long-lasting results. All of San Monica Properties’ partners are experienced in areas of communication, program coordination, project management and marketing. We propose a highly qualified team of managers, engineers and technical professionals. The partners were drawn from a group of individuals with similar business ideas and business interests. The San Monica Properties team brings considerable advantages: Executive Staffing Roster David Michaels- President and Chief Executive Officer: David Michaels is the founder and creator of San Monica Properties and his primary focus is to ensure that business will run efficiently and within budget, work closely with all the senior level managers and find strategic mergers acquisitions to spot opportunities with the marketplace, where the company will create new advantages for the market share and competitors. With more than 18 years of experience, David comes qualified as a President and CEO and has handled over 25 construction projects for SMP’s luxury kitchen apartments. He has been able to handle the company’s performance objectives, evaluating high or low performing business and teams and teams, appearing any brand awareness in the media in order to be proactive and representing the company. Tanasha Francis-Elliott- Director of Construction Operations: Ms. Tanasha brings more than 10 years of operating experience and has coordinated more than 10 construction operating planning schedules for SMP. She comes with a MBA in Business Management and has synchronized more than $1 million in operating expenses for San Monica Properties and San Monica Properties’ Management. Tanasha’s knowledge, experience and leadership for the past 10 years in Construction Operations has provided great support of how to run the company’s operations and making it a successful process for SMP. Before joining SMP, Tanasha has worked with Retail Operations and Bank Management Operations; thus successfully bringing her abilities, knowledge and skills to SMP cohesively operating more than 15 construction operating projects. She has successfully managed all construction operating business plan budgets and construction material(s) cost. Tanasha’s fearless and analytical skills have created her to

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Eisenhower Doctrine Definition and Analysis

Eisenhower Doctrine Definition and Analysis The Eisenhower Doctrine was an official expression of U.S. foreign policy delivered to a joint session of Congress by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on January 5, 1957. Eisenhower’s proposal called for a more proactive economic and military role on the part of the United States in the increasingly tense situation threatening peace in the Middle East at the time. Under the Eisenhower Doctrine, any Middle Eastern country being threatened by armed aggression from any other country could request and receive economic assistance and/or military assistance from the United States. In a â€Å"Special Message to the Congress on the Situation in the Middle East,† Eisenhower tacitly pointed to the Soviet Union as the most likely aggressor in the Middle East by promising the commitment of U.S. forces â€Å"to secure and protect the territorial integrity and political independence of such nations, requesting such aid against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism.† Key Takeaways: Eisenhower Doctrine Adopted in 1957, the Eisenhower Doctrine was a key aspect of U.S. foreign policy under the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower.The Eisenhower Doctrine promised U.S. economic and military combat assistance to any Middle Eastern country facing armed aggression.The intent of the Eisenhower Doctrine was to prevent the Soviet Union from spreading communism throughout the Middle East.   Background The rapid deterioration of stability in the Middle East during 1956 greatly concerned the Eisenhower administration. In July 1956, as Egypt’s anti-Western leader Gamal Nasser established ever-closer ties to the Soviet Union, both the U.S. and the United Kingdom cut off their support for the construction of the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River. In response, Egypt, aided by the Soviet Union, seized and nationalized the Suez Canal intending to use ship passage fees to fund the dam. In October 1956, armed forces of Israel, Britain, and France invaded Egypt and pushed toward the Suez Canal. When the Soviet Union threatened to join the conflict in support of Nasser, its already delicate relationship with the United States crumbled. Israeli Tanks Occupy Gaza During Suez Canal Crisis of 1956. Hulton Archive / Getty Images Though Israel, Britain, and France had withdrawn their troops by early 1957, the Suez Crisis left the Middle East dangerously fragmented. Regarding the crisis as a major escalation of the Cold War on the part of the Soviet Union, Eisenhower feared the Middle East could fall victim to the spread of communism. In the summer of 1958, the Eisenhower Doctrine was tested when civil strife- rather than Soviet aggression- in Lebanon drove Lebanese president Camille Chamoun to request U.S. assistance. Under the terms of the Eisenhower Doctrine, nearly 15,000 U.S. troops were sent to put down the disturbances. With its actions in Lebanon, the U.S. confirmed its long-term commitment to protecting its interests in the Middle East. Eisenhower Foreign Policy President Eisenhower brought what he called a â€Å"New Look† to U.S. foreign policy, emphasizing the need to respond to the spread of communism. In that context, Eisenhower’s foreign policy was greatly influenced by his staunch anti-communist Secretary of State John Foster Dulles. To Dulles, all nations were either part of the â€Å"Free World† or part of the communist Soviet bloc; there was no middle-ground. Believing that political efforts alone would not stop Soviet expansion, Eisenhower and Dulles adopted a policy known as Massive Retaliation, a scenario in which the U.S would be prepared to use atomic weapons if it or any of its allies were attacked.  Ã‚   Along with the threat of communist expansion in the region, Eisenhower knew the Middle East held a large percentage of the world’s oil reserves, which were badly needed by the U.S. and its allies. During the 1956 Suez Crisis, Eisenhower had objected to the actions of U.S. allies- Britain and France, thus establishing the U.S. as the lone western military power in the Middle East. This position meant that America’s oil security was more at risk should the Soviet Union succeed in imposing its political will in the region.   Impact and Legacy of the Eisenhower Doctrine The Eisenhower Doctrine’s promise of U.S. military intervention in the Middle East was not universally embraced. Both Egypt and Syria, supported by the Soviet Union, strongly objected to it. Most of the Arab nations- fearing Israeli â€Å"Zionist imperialism† more than Soviet communism- were at best skeptical of the Eisenhower Doctrine. Egypt continued to accept money and arms from the U.S. until the Six-Day War in 1967. In practice, the Eisenhower Doctrine simply continued the existing U.S. commitment of military support for Greece and Turkey pledged by the Truman Doctrine of 1947. In the United States, some newspapers objected to the Eisenhower Doctrine, arguing that the cost and the extent of American involvement were left open-ended and vague. While the doctrine itself did not mention any specific funding, Eisenhower told Congress he would seek $200 million (about $1.8 billion in 2019 dollars) for economic and military aid in both 1958 and 1959. Eisenhower contended that his proposal was the only way to address the â€Å"power-hungry communists.† Congress voted overwhelmingly to adopt the Eisenhower Doctrine. In the long run, the Eisenhower Doctrine failed to succeed in containing communism. Indeed, the foreign policies of future presidents Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Carter, and Reagan all embodied similar doctrines. It was not until December 1991 that the Reagan Doctrine, combined with economic and political unrest within the Soviet bloc itself, brought the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War. Sources The Eisenhower Doctrine, 1957. U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian.Foreign Policy Under President Eisenhower. U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian.Elghossain, Anthony. When the Marines Came to Lebanon. The New Republic (July 25, 2018).Hahn, Peter L. (2006). Securing the Middle East: The Eisenhower Doctrine of 1957. Presidential Studies Quarterly.Pach, Chester J., Jr. Dwight D. Eisenhower: Foreign Affairs. University of Virginia, Miller Center.

Friday, February 14, 2020

The Subway Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

The Subway - Essay Example Overlooking Employee Needs and Expectations 8 b. Deficiency in Complying HRM Policies 9 c. Avoiding Ethical Norms 10 2.5 Conclusion 10 2.5.1 Summary 10 2.5.2 Practical Implications 11 2.5.3 Research Implications 11 References list 13 1. Introduction 1.1 Background of the Company Founded in the year 1965, Subway is regarded as one of the biggest American based fast-food restaurant franchisers, which is primarily renowned for its exceptional deliverance of submarine sandwiches along with broad assortment of fast-food products. Currently, the organisation is operating its business in 103 global nations with 40,975 numbers of fast-food outlets that correspondingly serves millions of customers (SUBWAY 2013). 1.2 Research Title, Question and Objectives Emphasising the current business practices along with various business functions of the organisation i.e. Subway, the title of this research is â€Å"Critically analyse the â€Å"ineffectiveness of employee's compensation & benefits at Sub way in Singapore.† ... In this context, the Human Resource (HR) policies of the organisations are often recognised to provide incomplete or insufficient beneficial aspects to their staff members. Therefore, the rationale of this research can be determined based upon critically assessing the importance of compensation and benefits that can be regarded as major elements of Human Resource Management (HRM) of an organisation. 2. Literature Review 2.1 Introduction to Literature Review Armstrong (2011) critically stated that the offering of an adequate compensation package or any financial incentive can build a productive relationship between the organisations and their respective employees. Therefore, the organisations must need to be ensured providing justifiable compensation and employee benefits. The process would significantly support the employers along with the employees to gain substantial support in attaining considerable growth (Armstrong, 2011). In relation to the present HR policies practiced by Subw ay, it can be affirmed that the organisation should highly focus on providing justifiable compensation facilities to the employees in order to increase its overall business performance and willingness towards attaining the organisational goals. This particular practice can help the organisation in building a strong along with an effective relationship with its employees, resulting in lessening employee turnover rates of the organisation at large. The study of Berber & et. al. (2012) provided a major rationale in determining the role of compensation and benefits within various organisations. The study has analytically demonstrated that effective practice of compensation facilitates an organisation to gain numerous financial and operational